Frequently Asked Questions
This page contains answers to several frequently asked technical questions about Calico on Openstack. It is updated on a regular basis: please check back for more information.
“Why use Calico?”
The problem Calico tries to solve is the networking of workloads (VMs, containers, etc) in a high scale environment. Existing L2 based methods for solving this problem have problems at high scale. Compared to these, we think Calico is more scalable, simpler and more flexible. We think you should look into it if you have more than a handful of nodes on a single site.
For a more detailed discussion of this topic, see our blog post at Why Calico?.
“Does Calico work with IPv6?”
Yes! Calico’s core components support IPv6 out-of-the box. However, not all orchestrators that we integrate with support IPv6 yet.
“Why does my container have a route to 169.254.1.1?”
In a Calico network, each host acts as a gateway router for the workloads that it hosts. In container deployments, Calico uses 169.254.1.1 as the address for the Calico router. By using a link-local address, Calico saves precious IP addresses and avoids burdening the user with configuring a suitable address.
While the routing table may look a little odd to someone who is used to configuring LAN networking, using explicit routes rather than subnet-local gateways is fairly common in WAN networking.
Why can’t I see the 169.254.1.1 address mentioned above on my host?
Calico tries hard to avoid interfering with any other configuration
on the host. Rather than adding the gateway address to the host side
of each workload interface, Calico sets the
proxy_arp flag on the
interface. This makes the host behave like a gateway, responding to
ARPs for 169.254.1.1 without having to actually allocate the IP address
to the interface.
I’ve heard Calico uses proxy ARP, doesn’t proxy ARP cause a lot of problems?
It can, but not in the way that Calico uses it.
In container deployments, Calico only uses proxy ARP for resolving the 169.254.1.1 address. The routing table inside the container ensures that all traffic goes via the 169.254.1.1 gateway so that is the only IP that will be ARPed by the container.
“Is Calico compliant with PCI/DSS requirements?”
PCI certification applies to the whole end-to-end system, of which Calico would be a part. We understand that most current solutions use VLANs, but after studying the PCI requirements documents, we believe that Calico does meet those requirements and that nothing in the documents mandates the use of VLANs.
“How does Calico maintain saved state?”
State is saved in a few places in a Calico deployment, depending on whether it’s global or local state.
Local state is state that belongs on a single compute host, associated with a single running Felix instance (things like kernel routes, tap devices etc.). Local state is entirely stored by the Linux kernel on the host, with Felix storing it only as a temporary mirror. This makes Felix effectively stateless, with the kernel acting as a backing data store on one side and etcd as a data source on the other.
If Felix is restarted, it learns current local state by interrogating
the kernel at start up. It then reads from
etcd all the local state
which it should have, and updates the kernel to match. This approach has
strong resiliency benefits, in that if Felix restarts you don’t suddenly
lose access to your VMs or containers. As long as the Linux kernel is
running, you’ve still got full functionality.
The bulk of global state is mastered in whatever component hosts the plugin.
- In the case of OpenStack, this means a Neutron database. Our
OpenStack plugin (more strictly a Neutron ML2 driver) queries the
Neutron database to find out state about the entire deployment. That
state is then reflected to
etcdand so to Felix.
- In certain cases,
etcditself contains the master copy of the data. This is because some Docker deployments have an
etcdcluster that has the required resiliency characteristics, used to store all system configuration -and so
etcdis configured so as to be a suitable store for critical data.
- In other orchestration systems, it may be stored in distributed databases, either owned directly by the plugin or by the orchestrator itself.
The only other state storage in a Calico network is in the BGP sessions, which approximate a distributed database of routes. This BGP state is simply a replicated copy of the per-host routes configured by Felix based on the global state provided by the orchestrator.
This makes the Calico design very simple, because we store very little state. All of our components can be shutdown and restarted without risk, because they resynchronize state as necessary. This makes modelling their behaviour extremely simple, reducing the complexity of bugs.
“I heard Calico is suggesting layer 2: I thought you were layer 3! What’s happening?”
It’s important to distinguish what Calico provides to the workloads hosted in a data center (a purely layer 3 network) with what the Calico project recommends operators use to build their underlying network fabric.
Calico’s core principle is that applications and workloads overwhelmingly need only IP connectivity to communicate. For this reason we build an IP-forwarded network to connect the tenant applications and workloads to each other, and the broader world.
However, the underlying physical fabric obviously needs to be set up too. Here, Calico has discussed how both a layer 2 (see here) or a layer 3 (see here) fabric could be integrated with Calico. This is one of the great strengths of the Calico model: it allows the infrastructure to be decoupled from what we show to the tenant applications and workloads.
We have some thoughts on different interconnect approaches (as noted above), but just because we say that there are layer 2 and layer 3 ways of building the fabric, and that those decisions may have an impact on route scale, does not mean that Calico is “going back to Ethernet” or that we’re recommending layer 2 for tenant applications. In all cases we forward on IP packets, no matter what architecture is used to build the fabric.
“I need to use hard-coded private IP addresses: how do I do that?”
While this isn’t supported today, this is on our roadmap using a stateless variant of RFC 6877 (464-XLAT). For more detail, see this document.
“How do I control policy/connectivity without virtual/physical firewalls?”
Calico provides an extremely rich security policy model, detailed here. This model applies the policy at the first and last hop of the routed traffic within the Calico network (the source and destination compute hosts).
This model is substantially more robust to failure than a centralised firewall-based model. In particular, the Calico approach has no single-point-of-failure: if the device enforcing the firewall has failed then so has one of the workloads involved in the traffic (because the firewall is enforced by the compute host).
This model is also extremely amenable to scaling out. Because we have a central repository of policy configuration, but apply it at the edges of the network (the hosts) where it is needed, we automatically ensure that the rules match the topology of the data center. This allows easy scaling out, and gives us all the advantages of a single firewall (one place to manage the rules), but none of the disadvantages (single points of failure, state sharing, hairpinning of traffic, etc.).
Lastly, we decouple the reachability of nodes and the policy applied to them. We use BGP to distribute the topology of the network, telling every node how to get to every endpoint in case two endpoints need to communicate. We use policy to decide if those two nodes should communicate, and if so, how. If policy changes and two endpoints should now communicate, where before they shouldn’t have, all we have to do is update policy: the reachability information does not change. If later they should be denied the ability to communicate, the policy is updated again, and again the reachability doesn’t have to change.
“How does Calico interact with the Neutron API?”
This document document goes into extensive detail about how various Neutron API calls translate into Calico actions.